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“大汖村——一个将要消失的古村落”线上图片展
发表日期:2019年9月20日      来源:中国传统村落?;び敕⒄寡芯恐行?nbsp;     作者:


“大汖村——一个将要消失的古村落”线上图片展


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开篇的话:

在刚刚结束的乡关何处·传统村落“空心化”问题及其对策国际学术研讨会上,一场名为“大汖村——一个将要消失的古村落”的专题展览吸引了全体与会嘉宾的目光。该展览由我院中国传统村落?;び敕⒄寡芯恐行木牟呋?,由博物馆部组织实施,通过文字、图片、实物、实景模拟等方式,直观地呈现了大汖村这一即将消亡的传统村落的历史、信仰、生产、生活、物质遗存以及13位留守者的生存状态,在场嘉宾无不为之动容。

下面,我们将本次展览的全部内容分享给您。


       前言

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根据国家数据,从1978年至2018年,我国城镇常住人口从1.7亿增加到8.3亿人,城镇化率从17.9%增加到了59.58%,且正在向2030年将城镇化的水平推进到70%的目标迈进。乡土中国向城镇化的行进中,越来越多的农村人口流向城市,逐渐导致各个省份地区出现相当数量的无人村和气若游丝的空心村。


“世界任何一个民族没有这么快的速度失去它的村落,”冯骥才先生如是说??招幕浅钦蚧讨械囊桓霰厝还山锥?,但每一个传统村落都是地域文化的独特表征,如何应对?;び敕⒄怪涞墓叵?、经济财富与文明财富之间的平衡、农耕文明向城市文明的过渡之间的深刻矛盾,是我们必须要面对,且要积极应对的问题。


以山西省阳泉市盂县大汖村为范本的空村化研究,是中国传统村落?;び敕⒄寡芯恐行慕改昀吹难芯恐氐?。大汖村位于山西阳泉和河北交界处,是盂县最古老的村落之一,于2013年入选第二批国家级传统村落名录,2019年被评为第七批中国历史文化名村。然而,随着空心化问题的持续加剧,大汖村人口从高峰时的348人,萎缩至如今的13位常住村民,大多年老体衰,分布于10个户头生活。人口迁出的同时,伴随着生产方式的妥协,文化生活的流逝,使得村落不可避免地走向衰落和消亡。然而大汖村并非个案,而是我国众多空心化村落的典型之一,通过此次展览,我们将展示一个即将消亡的传统村落的历史、信仰、生产、生活、物质遗存,以及十三位留守者的生存状态,以期引起读者共情、共鸣及反思。


第一部分:历史

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大汖村,因村中三处瀑布而得名,村中农牧兼营,世代相传。村落历史源流,据庙宇中的石刻雕像至晚可追溯至金代。


大汖村自古所管辖的石龙镇山大王神庙,其始建年代是大汖村有文字可考的源头。该庙旧时建在大汖村外1.4公里河沟南岸龙堂洼口东侧的小山岗上,村民称为“镇山大王庙”或“石龙庙”,庙中供有七尊神像。


其中石龙镇山大王,神像背部有题刻,落款辨识为“承安二年十一月十三日志?!苯鸪邪捕辏?197),距今已有800余年的历史。但由于年款题刻漫漶不清,“承安二年”也有识别为“永安二年”一说。


此说,早在清嘉庆七年(1802)于石龙庙中刻立的《镇山大王重修碑记》上就有所记载:“向使无杨广善人建于永安二岁,后之人何能至今沐泽于无穷哉?”。若按北魏“永安二年”一说即公元529年,又将庙宇始建时间前推600余年。


无论“承安说”还是“永安说”,都是大汖村古老历史的明证,而历史的不确定性,也给村落增添了未知和神秘的色彩。


●大汖村地处晋冀交界的太行山深处,位于山西省阳泉市盂县梁家寨乡,南距县城70公里,北距五台山100公里,是盂县境内最古老的村庄之一。image.png


●大汖村建在一块巨大的山石上,依山就势,层层叠加,参差错落。

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●大汖村的建筑别具一格,既有南方吊脚楼的特点,又有北方民居的特色。

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●村内所有建筑材料,皆就地取材,用石头垒墙、木架覆盖、顶铺青瓦、黄土抹墙而成。

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●大汖村建造在一块凸出的巨岩上,村中的道路也是在岩石上凿刻出来的。

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●村口的大槐树有千年的树龄,主杆约2米粗,3人难以合围,像一个“守护神”,千百年来庇护着大汖的村民。

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●村内现存的一些庙宇

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第二部分:现状


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       经过历史的剧变和淘炼,当下的大汖村是单一的韩姓血缘村,从始祖韩崇明由御枣口迁入大汖村以来,已有250至300年历史,至今韩氏子弟已繁衍至15代。因此大汖村的人口变动,经历了一个由少到多又由多变少的过程。20世纪80年代初大汖村达到348人的人口高峰后,经过改革开放、包产到户、剧烈的城镇化大潮,近40年的人员持续流动, 2019年的大汖村常住村民13人,平均年龄70岁,大汖古村落面临消亡的危境。


如今,与最后13人相伴的,是大汖村已具规模的54处院落的民居建筑群,大多数空屋,在岁月碾压下,无声地破败和坍塌。祖辈相沿下的六座大小不一的古代庙宇,承担着留守村民的精神生活,朴素的神灵观、生死观让他们对于山水、村庄、逝去的亲人依恋且难以割舍。耕种、采摘、牧羊、女红、烹饪,十三人依然让大汖村展示出古朴农耕生活的魅力,而可随意开垦的荒凉土地、猖獗破坏生产的野生动物、缘于孤独和为生活成本考虑的搭伙过活,却昭示着村落已经进入某种临终模式。   


文字展出


     ●大汖村生产大队第三小队帐本(上世纪60年代)

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●大汖村粮食帐(上世纪70-80年代)

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●大汖村村民口述材料

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●大汖村韩氏家谱

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实物展出

01    农耕生产

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02    日常生活

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03  艺术传承


●村里的戏班散了30余年,这么多年不曾登上舞台的北路梆子戏服又一次展示在灯光下,精致的做工,闪亮的金银线诉说着大汖村曾经的兴旺。

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●戏服的精美程度不亚于现在的省级剧团。

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实景模拟



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图片延伸


●失去青壮年支撑的大汖村,目前只剩下十几个不忍离开的老人。在享受阳光的同时,他们也要承受孤独。图为村民韩二妮(已去世)展示她的相框,她说“当我想他们的时候,我就看这些照片?!?/p>

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●为互相照应,村里老人习惯在一起搭伙过日子。

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●原本房屋主人认为建造的非常坚固的石头房子,在自然的面前显得脆弱不堪,仅十几年的功夫就轰然倒塌。

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●村民们离开后,房屋无人维修,渐渐成为一具具空壳。

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●当一户一户的荒废逐渐蔓延,接下来就是整个村庄的荒芜。

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●村中早已没有了往日的喧嚣,人口的空心化,村落整体被遗弃,这便是中国传统村落正在展现的面貌。



第三部分:反思

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当我们谈起中国时,往往将其定位成一个“转型中的国家?!贝幽持殖潭壬纤?,我们是幸运的,能够在有限的一生,目睹如此多的的社会变化。但从另外一个角度讲,我们也是不幸的,亲历了传统的丢失。

传统村落里遗存着我们民族深厚的文化基因,保持着最真切的日常生活与约定俗成的风习。村落留下的不仅是建筑,附着在古村落之上的,还有宗族礼仪、乡规民约和道德准则??沾寤炒迓涞牟唤鍪谴车赖吕褚堑牧魇?,还有土地流失、文物流失以及非物质文化遗产的流失。

如今,大汖村像是一位垂暮的老人,奄奄一息。这个正在凋敝的村庄,在村民诀别式的迁徙后从内部瓦解。

空村化已成一种不可阻挡的趋势,像大汖村这样传统的、自然的、古朴的村庄,先是悄悄地在我们身边消失,然后慢慢地在我们的版图里消失,最后,将从我们的记忆里消失。


内容来源:中国传统村落?;び敕⒄寡芯恐行?br/>

图片来源:中国传统村落?;び敕⒄寡芯恐行?、吉德

责任编辑:柳聪

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